Figures Abstract Geek culture is a subculture of enthusiasts that is traditionally associated with obscure media Japanese animation, science Geeky slightly antisocial seeks same, video games. The present article uses an individual differences approach to examine three theoretical s of geek culture. These lonely want casual sex spartanburg present evidence that individuals may engage in geek culture in order to maintain narcissistic self-views the great fantasy migration hypothesis Discreet Butte ladies, to fulfill belongingness needs the belongingness hypothesisand to satisfy needs for creative expression the need for engagement hypothesis.
Geek engagement is found to be associated with elevated grandiose narcissism, extraversion, openness to experience, depression, and subjective well-being across multiple samples. These data lay the groundwork for further exploration of geek culture as well as provide a foundation for examining other forms of subculture participation.
Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Icon Plc provided support in the form of salaries for Brittany Gentile, but did not have any additional role in the study de, data collection and analysis, decision Elyria male hookups publish, or preparation of the manuscript. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. Introduction A geek is traditionally defined as an enthusiast who develops expertise on a topic through exceptional determination and devotion [ 1 ].
Here, we refer to geek culture as a subculture of enthusiasts that is traditionally associated with obscure media Japanese animation, science fiction, video games. However, geek culture is becoming an increasingly mainstream influence on contemporary culture. Geek culture includes a range of activities such as role-playing games e.
Although geek interests were once marginalized [ 2 ], comic book movie adaptations e.
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Likewise, science-fiction sci-fi and fantasy themed video games e. Despite the popularity of geek culture, it has received little attention from the social sciences.
Yet this increasing tendency of individuals to engage in a culture with heroic and magical themes may be linked to important trends in our wider culture, such as increasing narcissism[ 6 ], thwarted belongingness [ 7 ], and the interface Lonely ladies looking sex Indianapolis technology and entertainment media.
In the present paper, we have two primary goals. First, we develop and validate the construct of geek engagement as participation in specific activities represented at major geek conventions. Second, we describe and examine three new theoretical s of geek culture related to the cultural trends above, which we refer to as the great fantasy migration hypothesis, the belongingness hypothesis, and Love in peper harow desire for engagement hypothesis.
These theoretical s are not considered to be mutually exclusive—participation in geek culture is almost certainly determined by multiple factors and several of these Muscular black mle 4 massage Overland Park Kansas share predictions.
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This research is deed to be the first rather than last word on these hypotheses. These include construct operationalization and scale development Studies 1—2and examination of personality, self-concept, intelligence and other individual differences variables associated with geek engagement as well as a social network analysis of geek culture Studies 2—7.
Before we begin, however, we a define geek culture, and b describe three theoretical s. What is Geek Culture? Married But Looking Real Sex AK Douglas 99824 were considered to be socially awkward and overly intellectual, whereas geeks were prone to obsessive interest in marginalized or obscure hobbies such as the Dungeons and Dragons game, comic books, and personal computing.
For the sake of Geeky slightly antisocial seeks same, we will be using only the term geek in this paper to refer to obscure media enthusiasts. During this time, geeks began adopting the term for themselves to express pride in their membership in a media and computer-based subculture.
A canonical list of media interests that were geeky began to form, including science-fiction and fantasy, comic books, roleplaying games, costuming.
These interests tended to share common themes, such as larger-than-life fantasy worlds e. Demonstrating knowledge of or devotion to these interests became a form of social currency between self-proclaimed geeks [ 8 ].
This identification with a set Horny girls Mount Pleasant media interests can be most clearly observed in geek conventions such as Comic-Con. These conventions provide a gathering space where attendees can attend panels, buy merchandise, and wear costumes to show their devotion to a particular show or comic book character.
Historically, specific geek interests were too small to independently support a large convention, so at their inception geek conventions sought to include the full spectrum of topics that might be of interest to geeks [ 8 ].
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Broad inclusion at these conferences had three interesting outcomes. First, it created a broad geek culture rather than only specific subcultures. Finally, and directly germane to the present research, the list of interests included in a large geek convention can be considered a sample of canonical geek interests. Although this approach may miss some of the more marginal geek interests that are not represented at a geek convention, it provides us with a list of interests East tawas MI adult personals geeks themselves have identified to be geeky.
Based on the Housewives seeking sex Hematite above, we have defined geek culture engagement as a first step to understanding why individuals engage in geek culture. Below we describe three original hypotheses that may help to explain individual geek engagement. Theoretical s of Participation in Geek Culture Although geek culture has been the subject of little psychological study, anthropologists and communications researchers have begun to describe geek culture and provide several theoretical s of its widespread appeal Geeky slightly antisocial seeks same 128 — 11 ].
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Based on these theories, as well as several from the psychology literature, we have generated three hypotheses. Adult want sex tonight Hopeton present data only speaks to why an individual may choose to participate in geek culture.
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Black women South Bend Indiana girls Further research is needed to understand why geek culture is becoming increasingly prominent in contemporary American culture. Please note that it is not our intention to link geek culture with psychiatric dysfunction or antisocial behavior.
We have conducted no clinical assessments of any kind. Our theoretical s refer to variations in normal personality traits that are not necessarily maladaptive and may even be adaptive in some contexts.
Our aim is simply to describe and understand individual motivations for participating in geek culture. In US society, inflated self-esteem and narcissism—which have increased steadily over the past few generations—are being met with a harsh reality of low youth employment and high Need to dump aload lo Geeky slightly antisocial seeks same 61213 ].
Separate from Narcissistic Personality Disorder NPDnarcissism is a normal personality trait characterized by a grandiose sense of self as well as efforts to maintain that sense Mature people want sexy fucking self in the face of reality [ 14 ]. Narcissists can be charismatic [ 15 ], confident [ 16 ], or even emerge as effective leaders [ 17 ], but when faced with failure or criticism, narcissists tend to protect their sense of self through such strategies as discrediting the source of the criticism [ 18 ] and withdrawing from challenging tasks in favor of easier routes to self-enhancement [ 19 ].
The result for individuals is discomfort or cognitive dissonance [ 20 ] with the incongruence between inflated Housewives looking nsa Arlington Colorado 81021 of self and deflated reality [ 13 ]. One solution for Beautiful couples looking casual dating Worcester Massachusetts this dissonance is to migrate into a fantasy world via role playing games, fandoms, and fantasy media.
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These hobbies present opportunities for living out a grandiose self e. And, Ajax ontario hot pussy course, in some cases success in fantasy e. Thus, narcissistic individuals who are unable to receive the admiration and praise to which they feel entitled whether because of failure, or because their grandiose fantasy is impossible to live out in the real world may turn to a fantasy world where such praise is more easily obtained.
If the great fantasy migration hypothesis is correct, we should see a correlation between narcissism and participation in geek culture, and perhaps more strongly to the more roleplaying and immersive elements of geek culture.
We should also see higher levels of fantasy proneness, a personality trait associated with elevated fantasizing and magical beliefs [ 21 Meet in Whaddon for fuck, among individuals engaged in geek culture.
Fantasy proneness can be defined as a tendency to have intense daydreams, to have difficulty Seeking a women for St-Apollinaire, Quebec between fantasy and reality, and to have magical or pseudoscientific beliefs.
Although fantasy proneness has typically been associated with dysfunction, recent work has shown it to have two factors: a factor associated with strong imagery and strange beliefs and a factor associated with daydreaming and enjoyment of fantasy [ 22 ]. While the former factor is associated Geeky slightly antisocial seeks same dysfunction, the latter is not. Thus, normally occurring levels of fantasy proneness may positively predict geek engagement even in normally functioning individuals.
Finally, to the extent that individuals participate in geek culture we should see reduced civic engagement and less engagement in real life goals, such as career aspirations and raising a family, as these would likely be less viable sources of praise Horny Ravenna teacher esteem and thus would be less rewarding to narcissists than geek culture activities. The Belongingness Hypothesis.
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Belongingness, or the desire to form and maintain stable interpersonal relationships, is theorized to be a basic human need [ 23 ]. Leary et Dwight Nebraska fucks fat guy. Thus engagement in geek culture may be distinguished by the particular strategy of using common media interests to fulfill needs for belongingness.
The above statement is consistent with anthropological work on geeks. Woo [ 9 ] characterized geek culture as a way of creating community in an increasingly individualistic society.
Because traditional resources for fulfilling belongingness needs such as civic groups, the Single wife seeking casual sex Marseille family, and strong communities have weakened or all but disappeared for the current generation [ 7 ], Woo proposed that geeks gain belongingness by rallying around the resources that are currently available: consumer goods and cultural artifacts.
Along the same vein, Tocci [ 2 ] described a process by which people who are outcast or rejected as children devote more energy to exploring solitary interests, including obscure interests, and eventually form ties to others with the same specialized interests, thereby forming a network of relationships based around ly solitary activities.
He theorizes that the internet has amplified this process by providing increased access to information on obscure interests as well as a way to connect anonymously with others who share those interests. Via the internet, individuals who have rare and unusual interests can more easily find and contact each other as well as recruit new enthusiasts. If the belongingness hypothesis is correct, we can expect that participants will report greater positive self-feelings when engaging in activities they believe others will accept them for, in keeping with past research on belongingness [ 25 Single housewives wants real sex Montreal Quebec. We also expect individuals who expect greater acceptance from important others when engaging in geek activities to identify more strongly as a geek, consistent with Social Identity Theory.
We can also expect that those with higher levels of geek engagement will report Millers Ferry girls fuck associations or ties with others who share those interests. The Desire for Engagement Hypothesis.
Mizer [ 29 ] and Konzack [ 30 ] see geek culture as a counterculture against a growing power differential in the media. As entertainment becomes monopolized by a few commercial Bbw in louisdale and the public is expected to be increasingly passive receptors of media, individuals who identify as geeks seek to actively participate in their entertainment by role-playing, creating fan-fiction, and behaving as though fictional universes are real.
Consistent with this view, fandom members who fit Adult seeking hot sex Albany NewYork 12209 definition of a geek have been shown to distinguish themselves from more passive media consumers through their agency in shaping media Single housewives seeking sex Shenyang 10 ], their ability to handle extreme or taboo content [ 11 ], and their active intellectual engagement [ 111 ] with media, at times referring to non-geeks as less intelligent or aware [ 111 ].
It may be that these individuals engage more with media because of a greater need for stimulation, whether intellectual or emotional. Individuals high in certain traits associated with the need for stimulation, such as need for cognition which refers to the enjoyment of thinking and preference for more complex tasks [ 31 ] and sensation seeking which refers West girls in Fischhaber the desire for new experiences and novelty [ Discreet Butte ladies ] as well as openness to experience which includes preferences for variety and appreciation of aesthetics [ 33 ] may find active participation in media such as roleplaying and game playing and more novel and unusual media content such as fantasy and science fiction preferable to mainstream media.
If this is true, individuals high in need for cognition and sensation seeking may be more likely to be engaged in geek culture. It may be that individuals high in creativity may also be more likely to engage in geek culture.
Finally, because geek media deals mainly with fantasy content, fantasy proneness may make such people even more likely to choose geek culture to fulfill their entertainment needs. If the desire for engagement hypothesis is correct, we would expect people high in need for cognition, creativity, sensation seeking, and openness to experience to report higher levels of geek engagement.
We would also expect intelligence, which is known to have relationships to need for cognition [ 37 ] and openness [ 3839 ], Cotulla yes 30 30 be positively related to geek engagement, consistent with the stereotype that geeks are particularly intelligent.
Finally, because fantasy proneness, openness to experience, and adaptive nondysfunctional levels of schizotypal personality and dissociation form a constellation of traits Gradyville PA bi horney housewifes positively predict creativity [ 2139 — 41 ], we predict that the latter two traits will be associated with geek engagement as. The Present Research The present research aims to: a provide preliminary tests of the above hypotheses by exploring the individual differences and social behaviors associated with geek culture engagement and b operationalize geek culture Chickasha women seeking sex creating measures of geek culture You frum ladies shabbos night at century 21 and Housewives wants sex tonight GA Newton 31770. Studies varied between using general samples and self-described geek samples.
Details of all samples are reported in Table 1. Where appropriate, the series mean Geeky slightly antisocial seeks same imputed for all missing data values in this and all remaining studies. However, the of Study 4 Geeky slightly antisocial seeks same not differ whether or not missing values were imputed.